A Political History of the Texas Republic, 1836-1845

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Shortly before the failure of Treat, England promised assistance, and Lamar decided to make a third effort. He sent James Webb. Faring no better than his predecessors, Webb on his return urged the hostilities Lamar was considering. A military convention with the revolting Mexican state of Yucatan was then made, but this diplomatic threat was ineffective as Yucatan soon renewed its allegiance to Mexico.

How Was The Republic Of Texas Created?

At the end of Lamar's administration, Texas-Mexican relations were actually more unfriendly than they had been at the beginning. Financial needs often shaped foreign policies. Of all the agents employed to secure loans, none served with greater distinction than James Hamilton. At times Hamilton's work was entirely diplomatic, as he was well aware that recognition by foreign powers would facilitate his financial work in those nations. Given broad diplomatic powers, he negotiated with the governments of England, Netherlands, and Belgium, and his loan activities brought him in contact with influential men of many countries.

His first success was in Holland, where on September 15, , a treaty of commerce was signed. In London he drew up three treaties: one of commerce and navigation, a second providing for British mediation in the Texas-Mexico difficulties concerning peace, and a third calling for the suppression of slave trade. These were signed in November , but because of various delays ratifications were not exchanged until July 28, A great deal of Hamilton's time was spent trying to conclude a treaty with the Belgians; he was unsuccessful, however, as were his successors.

A Political History Of The Texas Republic - Semantic Scholar

While Hamilton enjoyed some success in his diplomatic endeavors, he found it impossible to negotiate the loan; and when Houston reassumed the presidency and reversed most of Lamar's policies, especially the financial ones, Hamilton's services were terminated. Ashbel Smith was appointed and held conversations with Spanish officials relative to a treaty of commerce, by which Texas hoped to develop trade with Cuba, but no conclusion was reached.

Smith's regular work as Texan envoy to London and Paris occupied so much of his time that he could not well extend the interests of Texas elsewhere. With Vincent Rumpff, representing the Hanse Towns of Hamburg, Lubeck, and Bremen, Daingerfield drew up a convention of amity, commerce, and navigation. Hamburg refused to ratify, and the Senate of Lubeck also declined, but Bremen approved and in anticipation of ratification, appointed a collector of customs for Galveston.

When the treaty reached Texas, annexation was the all-engrossing topic and no action was taken, ratifications in fact were never exchanged.


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Meanwhile Daingerfield conferred with representatives of Prussia and other European powers but learned that they were not inclined to enter into any formal agreements, since the continued existence of Texas was doubtful in the face of renewed conversations on annexation. Houston favored annexation although his actions did not always indicate it. In June he agreed to an armistice with Mexico. Houston agreed and sent James Pinckney Henderson to assist in the negotiations. A treaty proposing to admit Texas as a territory was drawn up but rejected by the United States Senate on June 8, The motives were varied, but undoubtedly most of the senators wanted to postpone the issue until after the national elections in November.

The election of James K.

Polk on an annexation platform was interpreted as a demand for immediate action and induced Tyler to renew his efforts. In December he submitted a proposition for the annexation of Texas by joint resolution. Passed late in February the joint resolution provided for the admission of Texas as a state instead of a territory, gave it the privilege of keeping its own public lands, thus providing a source of revenue with which to pay its debts, and extended the right to divide itself into as many as four additional states.

Andrew J. Donelson brought the proposition to Texas and urged its immediate acceptance. The United States government had good reason to be solicitous, for both England and France, in the hope that Texas might be induced to reject annexation and remain independent, had been urging Mexico to agree to a treaty of peace. Anson Jones, president of Texas, consented to the preliminaries of a treaty with Mexico by which that country consented to recognize the independence of Texas on condition that Texas would not become annexed to the United States.

Jones presented both propositions, annexation or Mexican recognition, to the Congress of the republic and to the people of Texas, who, by the Convention of , accepted the terms of annexation. This action ended all diplomatic activity of the republic, although some time passed before the various foreign representatives of Texas returned. Nancy Nichols Barker, trans. Diplomatic Correspondence of the Republic of Texas , ed.

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A Political History of the Texas Republic, 1836-1845

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A political history of the Texas Republic, 1836--1845

Then apply your knowledge of American history as well as the content of the document to answer the following questions: Compare the Texas Declaration of Independence and the United States Declaration of Independence. Identify and explain three similarities in content and format. Which of the numerous accusations against the Mexican government indicated the greatest area of conflict between the Anglo-Americans and the Mexican government? You may list more than one conflict. Be prepared to explain your reasoning.

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Note: In order to answer this question, it will be beneficial to review the circumstances surrounding the original settlement of Anglo-Americans in Mexican territory. How do you think current high school textbooks in Mexico describe this period of history? A printer-friendly version is available here. Resource Type Spotlight on: Primary Source. Curriculum Subject Government and Civics. Keywords Declaration of Independence.

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