Gendering global conflict : toward a feminist theory of war. New York: Columbia University Press. Slyvester, C. New York: Routledge. Whitworth, S. Williams, ed. Security Studies: An Introduction.
Gendering Global Conflict: Toward a Feminist Theory of War by Laura Sjoberg (Paperback, 2013)
Gender Issues , 28, pp. In Defence of New Wars. Stability , 2 1 , pp. London, Zed Books. Ellerby, K. As peacebuilding discourses increasingly stress the importance of including women, to what degree have security-related practices taken heed? This article adds to our understanding on women and peacebuilding by engaging as an operationalizable concept and then applying it to peace agreements to understand how women's security is addressed as part of formal peace processes. Given previous difficulties in operationalizing?
Using this concept of en gendered security, I assess intrastate peace agreements between and to elucidate where and how women are included in peace processes. This article illustrates the potential of a systematized and practical approach to security embodied in and a preliminary discussion of what accounts for better approaches to en gendered security during peacebuilding. Enloe, C. Maneouvres: the international politics of militarising women's lives, Univ of California Press. Globalization and Militarism: Feminists Make the Link. Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield.
Gibbs, J. Ruiz, et al. To address this gap in knowledge, this study explores differences between countries with high and low proportions of officers who are female.
Four of the five low percentage countries are located in Asia, with a higher population density, homicide rate and economic inequality as measured by the Gini Index than most of the countries with a high percentage of female officers. These low percentage countries also have yet to abolish capital punishment, whereas all high percentage countries have done so.
In addition, two of the low percentage countries, but none of the high percentage countries, were involved in a civil war during the data collection period; two of the high percentage countries, but no low percentage countries, were involved in interstate war. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. Gizelis, T.
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Pierre Goetz, A. Nyamu Goldstein, J. War and gender: how gender shapes the war system and vice versa, Cambridge University Press. Heathcote, G.
Otto Rethinking peacekeeping, gender equality and collective security, Palgrave Macmillan. Heinecken, L. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been an exponential growth in the use of private military and security companies. Few have debated the long-term consequences outsourcing of security holds for the military profession.
The first section of this article outlines the evolution of military outsourcing. The implications that this has for the armed forces and the military profession are deliberated. The conclusion is reached that extensive growth and use of private security have affected the intellectual and moral hegemony of the armed forces as providers of public security. The long-term implications of this in terms of the social structure and the identity of the military profession are not yet fully realized.
The South African military has adopted an assertive affirmative action campaign to ensure that women are represented across all ranks and branches. This has brought about new tensions in terms of gender integration, related to issues of equal opportunities and meritocracy as well as the accommodation of gender difference and alternative values.
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The argument is made that the management of gender integration from a gender-neutral perspective cannot bring about gender equality, as it obliges women to conform to and assimilate masculine traits. Under such conditions, it is exceedingly difficult for women to bring about a more androgynous military culture espoused by gender mainstreaming initiatives and necessary for the type of missions military personnel are engaged in today. Van der Waag-Cowling Hendricks, C. Gender and security in Africa: An overview. Uppsala, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Hutton Valasek Herbert, M.
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Hudson, H. A feminist perspective can make security discourse more reflective of its own normative assumptions. A critical feminist perspective is geared towards addressing the politics of multiple overlapping identities. Since gender is intertwined with other identities such as race, class and nationality, the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism is overcome by connecting individual experiences in a particular location to wider regional and global structures and processes.
An overview of a number of feminist and security-studies schools of thought reveals the extent of universalizing tendencies and gender silences within such discourses. The conceptual and political commensurability of the gender and security constructs is often overlooked. An emphasis on identity politics may thus help to clarify the ambivalence of human security as both a political project of emancipation and an analytical framework. A case is therefore made for more fluid context-based interpretations of gender in human security. In this regard it is posited that alternative feminist approaches, such as those rooted in the African context, could facilitate dialogue within and across supposedly irreconcilable standpoints.
Gender Inclusive: Essays on violence, men, and feminist international relations, Routledge. Karim, S. Beardsley Since the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution , which is referenced in most of the mandates for peacekeeping authorizations and renewals as of its adoption, UN peacekeeping forces have begun a process of gender balancing. While we have seen an increase in the numbers of female peacekeepers during the decade? Some feminist theorists have reclaimed and redefined such words as " dyke " and " bitch " and others have invested redefining knowledge into feminist dictionaries.
Feminist psychology is a form of psychology centered on societal structures and gender. Feminist psychology critiques the fact that historically psychological research has been done from a male perspective with the view that males are the norm. It incorporates gender and the ways women are affected by issues resulting from it. Ethel Dench Puffer Howes was one of the first women to enter the field of psychology. One major psychological theory, relational-cultural theory , is based on the work of Jean Baker Miller , whose book Toward a New Psychology of Women proposes that "growth-fostering relationships are a central human necessity and that disconnections are the source of psychological problems".
Conflict Resolution: Feminist Perspectives - Oxford Research Encyclopedia of International Studies
Psychoanalytic feminism and feminist psychoanalysis are based on Freud and his psychoanalytic theories , but they also supply an important critique of it. It maintains that gender is not biological but is based on the psycho-sexual development of the individual, but also that sexual difference and gender are different notions.
Psychoanalytical feminists believe that gender inequality comes from early childhood experiences, which lead men to believe themselves to be masculine , and women to believe themselves feminine. It is further maintained that gender leads to a social system that is dominated by males, which in turn influences the individual psycho-sexual development. As a solution it was suggested by some to avoid the gender-specific structuring of the society coeducation. Other feminist psychoanalysts and feminist theorists whose contributions have enriched the field through an engagement with psychoanalysis are Jessica Benjamin ,  Jacqueline Rose ,  Ranjana Khanna ,  and Shoshana Felman.
Feminist literary criticism is literary criticism informed by feminist theories or politics. Its history has been varied, from classic works of female authors such as George Eliot , Virginia Woolf ,  and Margaret Fuller to recent theoretical work in women's studies and gender studies by " third-wave " authors.
In the most general, feminist literary criticism before the s was concerned with the politics of women's authorship and the representation of women's condition within literature. It has considered gender in the terms of Freudian and Lacanian psychoanalysis , as part of the deconstruction of existing power relations. Many feminist film critics, such as Laura Mulvey , have pointed to the " male gaze " that predominates in classical Hollywood film making. Through the use of various film techniques , such as shot reverse shot , the viewers are led to align themselves with the point of view of a male protagonist.
Notably, women function as objects of this gaze far more often than as proxies for the spectator. Linda Nochlin  and Griselda Pollock    are prominent art historians writing on contemporary and modern artists and articulating Art history from a feminist perspective since the s. Pollock works with French psychoanalysis, and in particular with Kristeva's and Ettinger's theories, to offer new insights into art history and contemporary art with special regard to questions of trauma and trans-generation memory in the works of women artists.
http://speedynutrition.com/4161-mobile-phone.php Feminist history refers to the re-reading and re-interpretation of history from a feminist perspective. It is not the same as the history of feminism , which outlines the origins and evolution of the feminist movement. It also differs from women's history , which focuses on the role of women in historical events. The goal of feminist history is to explore and illuminate the female viewpoint of history through rediscovery of female writers, artists, philosophers, etc. Feminist geography is often considered part of a broader postmodern approach to the subject which is not primarily concerned with the development of conceptual theory in itself but rather focuses on the real experiences of individuals and groups in their own localities, upon the geographies that they live in within their own communities.
In addition to its analysis of the real world, it also critiques existing geographical and social studies , arguing that academic traditions are delineated by patriarchy , and that contemporary studies which do not confront the nature of previous work reinforce the male bias of academic study. The Feminist philosophy refers to a philosophy approached from a feminist perspective.
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This critique stems from the dichotomy Western philosophy has conjectured with the mind and body phenomena. This means that Feminist philosophers can be found in the analytic and continental traditions, and the different viewpoints taken on philosophical issues with those traditions. Feminist philosophers also have many different viewpoints taken on philosophical issues within those traditions. Feminist philosophers who are feminists can belong to many different varieties of feminism. The writings of Judith Butler , Rosi Braidotti , Donna Haraway , Bracha Ettinger and Avital Ronell are the most significant psychoanalytically informed influences on contemporary feminist philosophy.
Feminist sexology is an offshoot of traditional studies of sexology that focuses on the intersectionality of sex and gender in relation to the sexual lives of women.